LIFE AND WORKS OF THE TURKISH ADMIRAL PIRI REIS
Let us take a trip into some periods of the past. The first stop on this trip will be Turkey thirty years ago. The first quarter of the present century shows Turkey at the end of the War of Independence, and the Republic established by Kemal Ataturk (1923). The Turkish Republic, now thirty years old, was founded on the remains of another Turkish state, the Ottoman Empire (1299-1923).
For the second stop let us take the year 1929. Let us go into the Palace of Topkapi of the Ottoman Sultans, situated on one of the most beautiful spots of Istanbul called Sarayburnu. The palace, which consists of various buildings, each surrounded by vast gardens, testifies to the different characteristics of the Ottoman period. The Turkish Republican Government decided to turn this palace into a museum.
Discovery of the map of America[/h3]
In the process of classifying the numerous articles in the buildings, Mr. Halil Edhem, Director of the National Museums, discovered a map* (9 Nov.1929) till then unknown in the world of science. Upon hearing of this discovery of the oldest map of America Ataturk showed great interest in the matter. He asked for the map to be brought to Ankara, studied it and ordered it to be published as it stood and to be submitted to scholarly research.
* Map, or chart, “portulano” in contemporary phraseology, a term used for all such charts showing the position of ports and based on the idea of the earth being flat.
To study this map for the first time with Ataturk was an immense thrill. It had been drawn hundreds of years ago on a roe-skin, with various coloured illustrations and writings on it. As I held it in my hands, I felt as if I were living in the long forgotten past. My emotions are twenty-four years old now, but let us, with the same national and scholarly pride, take a glimpse into the period when this map was drawn and into the history of the man who had drawn it.
This is one of the oldest and yet most perfect maps of America, drawn by a Turkish admiral. Now, if you do not mind being centuries old for a few minutes, come with mc to the XVIth century. In this third stop our journey suddenly covers a vast ground.
The Sea-Power of the Ottoman-Turkish Empire in the XVth and XVIth centuries[/h3]
In the XVth century, particularly after the conquest of Istanbul, the Ottoman state grew into an Empire. To secure Turkish domination over the Black Sea and the Mediterranean she had to possess naval strength, which she did. To get the upper hand on the Mediterranean, the Turkish forces had to fight against the Venetians, the Genoese, their usual ally the Knights of St. John, and the Spanish.
They finally succeeded in acquiring territorial sovereignty as far as Vienna in west, to the Caucasus, Iran and Iraq in the east, and south and the as a result of adding Syria, Egypt, Tunis, Algiers, the Hejaz and Arabia to the former conquests, formed close contacts on various seas. The Black Sea and the Mediterranean, including the Adriatic shores, came under the domain of the Turkish banner.
The fleet carried it across to the Red Sea, the Persian Gulf and the Amman Seas up to the Indian Ocean. The great Turkish admiral, Pin Reis, whose life will be our topic of discussion now, was one of those great Turkish admirals like Burak Reis, Kemal Reis, Muslahiddin Reis, Barbaros Hayrettin, Turgut, and Kilic Ah, who, at the end of the XVth and during the XVIth centuries, won splendid victories for the Turkish fleet, and thus established Turkish power and preserved it over the seas.
[url=http://www.cherada.com/articulos/the-oldest-map-of-america-drawn-by-piri-reis-the-book-bahriyyeon-navigation]#Piri Reis Book “Bahriyye-on Navigation”
[url=http://www.cherada.com/articulos/the-oldest-map-of-america-drawn-by-piri-reis-piris-first-map-of-the-world-1513]#Piris first map of the world, 1513
[url=http://www.cherada.com/articulos/the-oldest-map-of-america-drawn-by-piri-reis-the-second-map-of-america]#The second map of America
[url=http://www.cherada.com/articulos/the-oldest-map-of-america-drawn-by-piri-reis-comparison-of-piri-reis-maps-with-other-contemporary-on]#Comparison with contemporary maps
[url=http://www.cherada.com/articulos/the-oldest-map-of-america-drawn-by-piri-reis-different-versions-of-the-bahnye]#Different Versions of The “Bahnye”
ABDULHAK ADNAN La Science chez les Turcs Ottomans. Paris, 1939, pp. 59-64.
A. ADNAN ADIVAR-Osmanh Ttirklerinde him. tstanbul, 943, pp. ~~-68.
ARET-Bir Turk Amirali, XVI. asrzn buyuk ceogafi: Piri Reir, S. 317-332. Un Amiral, Geographe Ture du XVLe si!cle-Piri~Reis, auteur de la plus ancienne Carte de lAmtrique. pp.333-348. Belleten, Vol. I, 2 Ankara I, April, 1937.
Aretinan-Americas oldest map, made by an Turkish admiral: Pirt Reis, Translated by: Miss Leman Yolac, Ankara, 1950. (From a talk given at the National Library in Ankara.)
Akcura, Yusur-Map drawn by Pin Reis. Turkish interest in America in 1513: Pin Reis Chart of the Atlantic Made some ten years after Columbus first discoveries and seven years before Magellan rounded Cape Horn! pp.142-143 “Illustrated London News”, 23, luly 1932.
Akucura, Yusur- Fir Reis haritasi hakkznda izahname – Die Karic des Pin Reis. Pin Reis map. Carte de Pir~ Reis. T. T. K. No. I Istanbul, 1935.
ALPAGUT H. ve F. KURTO 0 LU – Mukaddime, I – LV. Pin Reis: Kitab-i Balinyc. T. T. K. No. 2, Istanbul 1935.
BATAiLLON, LiONEL – La aecouverte de 1 Univers par lhomme vzsage du monde (Evolution humaine) Paris, 1934.
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HUMPHREYS, A. L. SKELTON, R. A. – Decorative Printed Maps of the 5 th to i8 lb Centuries. London, 1952. Old decorative Maps and Charts. (by A H. Humphreys).
IBNI KEMAL-“(Kemal Pa~azadc Semseddin Ahmed d. 535)”, Tevarih-i Al-i Osman. The ninth of the ten books: “Yavu7 Scum devri”.
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KAHLE, PAUL-Piri, Reis Bahnye, Das turkisches Segelhandbuch frr dos Mittelldndische Meer vom Jahre 1521. Berlin-Leipzig 1926. Band I. Text, Band II. Ubersetzung.
KAHLE, PAUL-Pin Reis, und seine Bahrzye, (Beitra~ge zur his-torischen Geographic) 1927.
KAHLE, PAUL-Die Verschollene Columbus Karte von 1498 in emer Turkisehen Weltkarte von 1513. Berlin, Leipzig 1933.
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K0NYALI, IBRAHiM HAKKI- Topkapz Sarayznda deri u.~zenne yapzlmz~ eski haritalar. tstanbul, 1936.
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MUHARREM, FEYZi-XVIII. aszrda Turk asken kzyafrtleri. Turkish Military Uniforms in XVIII th Century. Istanbul, 1933. Tho. MC. Lean- i8i8, London.
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OBERHAMMER-Eme Tarkische Karte zur Entdeckkung Amerikas, aus dem Anzeiger der Akademie der Wissenschq/ten Wien 1931, pp. 99-112.
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PIRI REIS-Piri Reis Haritasz. (Facsimile from the first map of the world).Istanbul i935, T.T.K. No. I.
PIRI REIS-Kitab-z Bahn~e. (Facsimile of the St. Sophia Museum, No. 202). Istanbul 1935, T. T. K. Publications No.2.
PAULIN, CHARLES-Atlas of the Historical Geography of the l7nited States, Washington, 1932, Edited by J. K. Wright, Amencan Geographical Society of New York. (Although this book was published after the discovery of Piri Reis map, it has no reference to this work.)
RONCIERE CH. DE LA – La carte de Ch. Colombe. Paris, 1924.
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SADI, HAMID – Tu~rklerde Haritaclllk ve Cogrqfya, (Turk tarihinin ana hatlari, Sen II. No.40) T. T. K. Istanbul.
SELEN, SADI HAMiD -Fir Reisin Simali Amerika Haritasi, PP. ~1~-5i8. Belleten Vol. I, 2 April, 1937. Die Nord Amerika-Karte des Pin Reis (1528).
UZUNSARSILI, ISMAlL HAKKI – Osmank Devletinin Merkez ve Bahrzye Te#ila~t~. Ankara 1948, pp. 389-528. T.T.K. VIII. No. i6.
UZUNCARSIH-ORD. PROF. I. H. Osmank Tarihi. Ankaia 1949, Vol.1. T.T.K. XII. No.16/2. 192-195 pp.284-286.
YURDAYDIN, HUSEYIN G.-Kitab-z Bahrtyenin telif mesele~i PP. 143-146 June 1952 D. T. C. quarterly; Vol. X, 12. Map drawn by Piri Reis, one of the Turkish Geographers. “Illustrated London News”, 25, February 1932.
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